Medical cannabis patients and their caregivers can possess up to 2 ounces of dried cannabis. However, a mayor can increase the maximum amount a patient or their caregiver can possess to 4 ounces of dried cannabis.
Like other psychoactive drugs, cannabis is classified as a Schedule I Controlled Substance. Consequently, it is prohibited under the Controlled Substance Act of 1970, and D.C. residents cannot use the drug on federal government-owned properties. These federal restrictions limit the financial transactions of marijuana businesses to local sources. Also, marijuana businesses cannot benefit from federal income tax returns or generate capital through investors, hence a setback to business expansion.
In the District of Columbia, adults 21 years and over can use cannabis in a way stipulated by the District laws. Despite being legal in the District, marijuana laws in D.C. are tricky because it is the capital city of the United States. D.C. has its marijuana laws different from those regulating cannabis on the federal level. For instance, universities and colleges in D.C. can establish and enforce policies regarding the use and possession of marijuana on their premises, irrespective of the users are 21 years or over.
Marijuana is a plant with both recreational and medical uses. People call it several names such as cannabis, weed, dope, and pot. The plant contains chemicals that can affect the human body in various ways. It has active compounds such as cannabidiol (CBD), a mind-altering ingredient. Its psychoactive components like tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) make weed users high. People who use cannabis do so in different ways. They smoke it, mix it in food or brew it as tea. Some even take it as supplements or capsules.
Marijuana legalization in D.C. and some states in the U.S. has been a long haul as cannabis use faced various criticisms at different points in history. Cannabis was only a little-used drug in the United States at the beginning of the 20th century. However, the Mexican revolution in 1910 changed the narratives. Mexicans were heavy marijuana smokers who brought this culture to the U.S. as they began to immigrate to the country. There was growing trepidation of Mexican immigrants, and people began to spread terrifying allegations about marijuana. As if these allegations were not enough, Harry J. Anslinger of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics (FBN)), in 1930, went all out with a campaign against the drug. He cited the potential of causing insanity and violence induction as his primary reasons for the intense campaign. Using his office as commissioner of the FBN, Anslinger sought a federal ban on marijuana. In 1937, he achieved this and superintended the enactment of the Marihuana Tax Act, which made cannabis illegal in the U.S.
Persons under 21 years cannot use marijuana recreationally in the District of Columbia. While marijuana is legal in D.C., it is still illegal under federal law. Hence, residents should be careful with marijuana possession as federal law enforcement officers can arrest anyone in the District for carrying any amount of drug, even if they are 21 years or older. However, D.C. Police will not do so, provided possession and use of marijuana complies with the provisions of the District marijuana laws.
The majority (69%) of the District's voters approved Initiative 59 of the 1998 ballot, hence legalizing marijuana for some severe medical conditions. Patients eventually started buying medical marijuana from dispensaries in 2013. In 2014, D.C.'s voters approved Initiative 71 - Legalization of Possession of Minimal Amounts of Marijuana for Personal Use Act. This bill passed with 64.87% votes. Consequently, recreational cannabis use in D.C. commenced in 2015.
The marijuana industry in the District has various chains such as cultivation, transportation, sale, and testing. The laws and bills regulating the sale and use of cannabis and their amendments over the years include:
Marijuana Possession Decriminalization Amendment Act of 2014: This Act, initially called the Simple Possession of Small Quantities of Marijuana Decriminalization Amendment Act of 2013, was enacted on July 17, 2014. The law was enacted to address racial bias in marijuana possession arrests and promote civil rights in the District. It stipulates that the possession or sharing (without remuneration) of more than 2 ounces of marijuana is a civil offense. This offense is punishable by a $25 fine and confiscation of any cannabis or paraphernalia found on the offender. Minors (persons below 18 years) found in possession of up to 1 ounce of cannabis would also pay a $25 fine and forfeit all marijuana in their possession. Before the enactment of this Act, persons caught with 1 ounce of cannabis or less could face up to 30 days imprisonment, with or without a fine. The Act eliminated the criminal penalties for possession of up to 1 ounce of cannabis or paraphernalia.
Secure and Fair Enforcement (SAFE) Banking Act of 2019: This bill seeks to prohibit federal bank regulators from penalizing banks that provide services to legitimate cannabis businesses. Although marijuana is legal in D.C., the federal ban restricts banks and other financial institutions from dealing with cannabis businesses. If enacted, the Act will restrict bank regulators from:
Terminating the deposit insurance of a financial institution for serving a legitimate cannabis enterprise
Encouraging banks (through incentives) that refuse to provide financial services to business owners or account holders that legally profit from the cannabis industry
Penalizing banks that offer loans or other services to cannabis business owners
Secure and Fair Enforcement (SAFE) Banking Act of 2021: This Act intends to limit federal banking regulators from penalizing banks for serving marijuana-profiting businesses. It will allow financial institutions to offer loans and other banking services to marijuana businesses without facing disciplinary action or asset forfeiture. Per this bill, profit from legitimate cannabis businesses will not be regarded as proceeds from illegal activities. Consequently, such proceeds would not be subject to anti-money laundry regulations. Also, federal banking regulatory agencies would be restricted from ordering banks to terminate marijuana-profiting customers' accounts solely because of their business.
Safe Cannabis Sales Act of 2019: Mayor Muriel Browser proposed this bill in 2019. This bill would clarify the existing cannabis laws to reduce patronage of illegal cannabis (containing harmful chemicals) and promote health and safety in neighborhoods. The bill would also provide jobs, housing, and other social benefits to communities that were disadvantaged by marijuana criminalization. The provisions of the Safe Cannabis Sales Act include:
The daily purchase limits for adults (21 years and above) would be:
Allowing eligible persons to buy marijuana online and have them delivered to their residential addresses
Increasing cannabis sales tax to 17%
Prohibiting the use of marijuana in public spaces such as schools, sidewalks, parks, and roadways.
Prohibiting the smoking of marijuana at workplaces
In addition, the Safe Cannabis Sales Act would introduce a seed-to-sale system for tracking cannabis. It would also make it compulsory for D.C. residents to own 60% of all new marijuana businesses and 60% of cannabis business employees to be residents of the District. Also, cannabis cultivation, distribution, manufacturing, retailing, and testing facility licenses would be valid for three years. The licenses will then be renewed or limited based on demand. If enacted, the Act would allow only medical marijuana licensees to apply for off-premise retailing and cultivation licenses within the first six months. The Act would rename the Alcohol and Beverage Regulation Administration as the Alcohol Beverage and Cannabis Administration.
In addition, the Cannabis Legalization and Regulation Act would automatically expunge all marijuana-related convictions and arrests per the D.C. Code. This would give incarcerated persons an opportunity to modify their sentences.
The District of Columbia restricts the legitimate sale of marijuana to licensed dispensaries. Although the use and possession of small amounts of recreational marijuana are legal in D.C., it is illegal to sell it in the District. To buy cannabis legally, an individual must be a qualified patient or a caregiver. Medical marijuana patients 18 years and older can purchase cannabis from licensed dispensaries but must show their medical marijuana cards. Patients under 18 years can their caregivers make purchases for them. Worthy of note is that caregivers are only permitted to buy cannabis for patients. They are not allowed to grow the plant.
Generally, dispensaries prefer cash payments. Depository banks limit the services they offer cannabis businesses due to the federal ban on the drug. Marijuana dispensaries in D.C. often sell cannabis in various forms such as concentrates, flowers, edibles, and applications. However, they are not allowed to sell cannabis to recreational users or in the form of alcohol or tobacco.
The Alcoholic Beverage Regulation Administration (ABRA) is the agency responsible for regulating and licensing cannabis businesses in D.C. The dispensary license allows marijuana businesses to sell medical cannabis and paraphernalia to qualified patients in formulations for ingestion, inhalation, or other forms that are considered safe for human use.
The ABRA charges an $8,000 fee for new dispensary licenses, valid for one year, and $16,000 for annual license renewal. It charges patients and their caregivers $100 for new medical marijuana cards, valid for one year, and $100 for renewal. However, some applicants can qualify for a reduced fee of $25 for both initial registrations and renewal if they are Medicaid beneficiaries and can provide proof of financial needs.
Although marijuana is legal for adults up to 21 years in D.C., the District has strict regulations on marijuana sale and use. The following are some marijuana-related offenses and their penalties:
As provided in Title 48 Chapter 12 of the D.C. Code, adults (21 years and older) can possess up to 2 ounces of cannabis. However, possessing more than the permitted amount of marijuana is a civil offense punishable by a $25 fine. Law enforcement officers are authorized to seize any cannabis and paraphernalia they find on any offender. If the offender is a minor (under 18 years), the Office of Administrative Hearings (OAH) will send a copy of the violation notice to their parent or guardian via mail.
Offenders must provide their names and addresses at the request of law enforcement. Persons who refuse to provide this information or purposely give incorrect information to a law enforcement officer risk a $100 fine if convicted.
Furthermore, the District prohibits the possession of cannabis in drug-free zones such as areas within 1,000 feet of daycare centers, elementary schools, playgrounds, or public housing facilities. Violation of the drug-free zone restriction attracts the following penalties:
According to Title 48, Chapter 9 of the D.C. Code, it is illegal to sell marijuana in the District without a license. Unauthorized persons caught selling cannabis in the District can face the following penalties:
Persons over 21 years caught enlisting minors (below 18 years) to sell marijuana will be charged for selling cannabis and risk the same penalties as though they sold the drug directly. Offenders risk the following additional penalties depending on prior convictions:
Per Title 48, Chapter 9 of the D.C. Code, the term ''hashish'' refers to the extracts from marijuana plants and any of its derivatives. Generally, the amounts of THC in concentrates and hash are higher than in other cannabis preparations. Persons caught manufacturing, sharing, selling, or possessing any amount of hash commit an offense as stipulated by D.C. Code's provisions. Offenders risk a maximum jail time of thirty years, a fine of up to $30,000, or both.
Also, penalties apply when an adult is caught distributing hash to minors (below 18 years). Offenders risk a maximum fine of $12,500, a jail time of up to ten years, or both. Selling or sharing hash within drug-free zones in the District attracts a maximum of twenty years imprisonment, $50,000 fine, or both, for first-time offenders. If an individual repeats this offense, they can be charged with up to forty years imprisonment, a $100,000 fine, or both.
No. The District of Columbia allows adults to share up to 1 ounce of cannabis. However, they can only share with other adults of legal age. Persons caught gifting up to 2 ounces of cannabis can serve 180 days maximum imprisonment, pay up to $2,500, or both. Gifting cannabis to minors attracts more severe penalties. Offenders risk incarceration for a maximum of five years, a $25,000 maximum fine, or both.
Yes. As stipulated in Initiative 71, D.C. adults (21 years and older) can grow up to six marijuana plants at home, provided only a maximum of three are mature and at the flowering stage. However, for a home to qualify, it must not be within 1,000 feet of a school, playground, or daycare center. In addition, it is illegal to cultivate cannabis within 1,000 feet of public housing, youth centers, or libraries. Recreational cannabis users are restricted from cultivating the plant in areas that are open to public view or easily accessible to persons under 21 years.
Yes. Adults 21 years and older can transport marijuana within the District. However, the amount of cannabis an individual is permitted to transport per time cannot exceed 1 ounce. Transporting more than the permitted amount attracts a fine of $25 and confiscation of any marijuana or paraphernalia found on the offender at the time. Because of the federal restriction on cannabis, it is illegal to transport cannabis out of D.C. or into federally-owned properties within the District.
It is illegal to drive under the influence of marijuana in the District of Columbia. Persons convicted of Driving Under the Influence (DUI) of marijuana risk a $1,000 fine, 180 days maximum jail time, or both, for first-time offenders. Repeat offenders risk a compulsory ten-day minimum jail term. Repeat offenders face an additional one-year maximum jail term, a fine ranging between $2,500 and $5,000, or both. Typically, law enforcement can prove that drivers are intoxicated by their traffic rules violations and their incoherent statements.
Marijuana became legal for medical and recreational use in D.C. following the approval of Initiative 59 and Initiative 71 of the D.C. ballot initiative. The journey to cannabis legalization in D.C. dates back to the 20th century. In 1906, ''An Act to Regulate the Practice of Pharmacy and the Sale of Poisons in the District of Columbia, and for other purposes'' was introduced by the D.C. Congress. According to the provisions of this Act, only licensed pharmacists could dispense marijuana, and its use was solely based on prescription by qualified medical personnel.
In November 1998, D.C. voters approved Initiative 59 - Legalization of Marijuana for Medical Treatment Initiative. The initiative passed with a 69% vote that year. However, Bob Barr, a Georgia Congressman, proposed the total prohibition of medical cannabis federally. The Barr Amendment restricted the District from funding the program. Consequently, the implementation of Initiative 59 was delayed until 2009, when the Barr Amendment was overturned. The Council of D.C. enacted a bill to legalize medical marijuana in May 2010. Because Congress did not overturn this bill, medical cannabis became legal on January 1, 2011. In 2013, marijuana patients could legally purchase their drugs from cannabis dispensaries.
The D.C. Council decriminalized the possession of marijuana on March 4, 2014. The law was enacted in July 2014 after a compulsory thirty-day review period by Congress. However, Andy Harris, the Maryland representative, led the House Republicans to block funding of the cannabis decriminalization law. The Harris amendment hindered the District government from investing its funds in reducing the punishment for Schedule I drug offenses. Harris considered the $25 fine per the decriminalization law as a bad policy.
D.C. voters approved Initiative 71, a ballot initiative, on November 4, 2014. The initiative won by a 64.87% majority approval, and it was fully enacted on February 26, 2015. This law permits D.C. adults over 21 years to possess up to 2 ounces of cannabis and cultivate up to three immature and three mature cannabis plants at home. The law also allows eligible adults to share up to 1 ounce of cannabis with another adult of legal age (21 years). It equally legalized the possession of marijuana paraphernalia. However, buying, selling, and using cannabis in public is still illegal in the District of Columbia.
Despite the legalization of recreational and medical marijuana in D.C., there are still limitations on its use. Restrictions apply to the quantity that can be possessed, grown, or shared at a time and those who can use it. Restrictions on Cannabis in the District of Columbia include: